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Energy-converting Materials

One of the fundamental laws in physics is the conservation of energy. Therefore, fundamentally speaking we cannot create energy, but only convert or store energy. Advanced materials are central in the energy conversion and storage. Increasing the efficiency of energy materials can reduce electricity consumption and CO2 emission.

It is in many cases possible to interconvert between different kinds of energy: 

Energy Material Device
Motion electricity Permanent magnet Electromotor/dynamo
Light electricity pn-junction Diode/solarcells
Heat electricity thermoelectric       Peltier device
Electrical charge electricity dielectric material Condensator
Electrochemical electricity ion conductors        Batteries
Chemical bonds electricity ion conductors       Fuel cells